Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

By Ben Fuchs | Pharmacist Ben

– dedicated to Robert Y.


· We have two nervous systems.   One for handling stress (sympathetic) and one for relaxation (parasympathetic)

· Under normal healthy circumstances our body’s activities should be dominated by the relaxation nervous system based activity (activated upper digestion, relaxed lower digestion, lower heart rate and a sense of well-being)

· The signs of PTSD are the signs of an overactive sympathetic stress system

· Work mentally and emotionally first.  Use hypnosis, visualization, religion, whatever it takes

· Deep breathing can be very effective.  Stress and shallow breathing go hand in hand.  Oxygenations the fastest way to activate the parasympathetic nervous system

· Nutrition and diet strategies can help too

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

By English: Cpl. Andrew Johnston [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

As if the trauma of war wasn’t horrific enough, upon cessation of battle and stateside return, many soldiers are destined to confront continued traumatic mental and emotional stress despite the absence of immediate emergency.  The ensuing constellation of stressful symptoms, so called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), affects, according to the Congressional Research Service, 27 percent of soldiers returning from undeclared wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.

And you don’t have to be war veteran to suffer from PTSD.  The same constellation of symptoms that affects returning vets can occur with victims of violence, sexual abuse, or emotional battering and mental harassment.   Concentration camp victims and survivors of accidents and natural disasters are also prone towards the symptomology of PTSD.  In fact, according to WebMD, over 5 million people in the United States are suspected of having some of the symptoms of PTSD which can be grouped into three general categories:

Reliving-(hallucinations, flashbacks),

Avoiding- (sense of detachment and isolation)

Increased arousal -(anger, jumpiness, anxiety, insomnia)

To understand PTSD, we have to understand the nervous system or more specifically, the nervous systems.    Plural, because we have two of them.  One which regulates the stress response is called the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).    Constipation, oily, skin, insomnia, low sex drive and anxiety are all signs of an activated stress response nervous system.  The second nervous system is called the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS).  It regulates the relaxation response.  PNS activation is manifested by relaxed lower digestion, activated upper digestion, lower heart rate, high libido and a sense of well being.

Under normal circumstances the body operates in a PNS dominant state.  It would like to always be in a PNS dominant state.  The sympathetic nervous system is an emergency system and chronic activation is bound to create mental emotional and physical health havoc.  PTSD is a classic example of an SNS running amok. Consequently the best strategy for dealing with Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome is to return the body to a PNS dominant state.

Probably the most important therapy for dealing with PTSD and returning the parasympathetic to its rightful biochemical place as the dominant nervous system is to address the mental and emotional causes.  Do not underestimate the importance of this component.  Work with any mental and emotional strategies you can come up with.  Meditation, visualization, hypnosis, Landmark Forum or God.  It doesn’t matter.  This is the most important component of dismantling of PTSD or any other emotional/mental   health challenge.

Deep breathing can also be helpful.  When the anxiety of PTSD kicks in the body tends to contract and breathing becomes more rapid and shallow.  Contractions and rapid shallow breathing alert the adrenal glands to a threat and stress hormone kick in.   This causes more shallow breathing and a further contraction old the muscles and connective tissue.    Which causes the secretion of more adrenal stress hormones, which causes even more contraction and shallow breathing.  The resultant downward spiral can continue unabatedly until it shows up as the chromic emergency type symptoms associated with PTSD.  The key to breaking the spiral is to practice deep breathing.  In fact, there is no faster way to activate the relaxation response than to deep breathe.  For extra benefits, practice relaxing facial muscles on the exhale.

From a diet and nutritional standpoint, there are many strategies for activating the body’s PNS regulated response.  Below are my Top 14 nutritional strategies for activating the relaxation response and dealing with PTSD:

1.      Maintain stable blood sugar; eat more protein, less refined carbs.  Refined food is also more likely to contain excitotoxins which can exacerbate anxiety.

2.      Veggies and protein – Recipe for building serotonin, the body’s most important stress management biochemical.   Starchy veggies and protein from whey and eggs can be especially helpful.

3.      Lithium Oratate (5mg active elemental lithium) – mood stabilizing nutrient, used as prescription medicine, but available at a health food store, very relaxing.

4.      GABA 100mg – (500 to 1000mg once or twice a day)-relaxing brain chemical, made by the body so there’s no toxicity.

5.      Theanine (100-200mg 1-3 times a day)– an amino acid found in tea theanine has been shown in numerous studies to have psychoactive effects, thought to increase the brains levels of GABA, theanine may have excitoxicity benefits too.  You can drink decaff green tea to bump up your theanine levels in the middle of the day.

6.      Glycine (500 to 1000mg once or twice a day) -like GABA it’s a brain chemical and made by the body so there’s no toxicity.  Whey protein is an excellent source of glycine.

7.      Vitamin C (5-10 grams a day) – The quintessential anti stress vitamin.  Deficiencies are common. The greater the stress the more you need.  The more sugar you eat, the more you need.  Take the powder and save money, 1teaspoonful = 5grams.

8.      B-Complex (B-100 every few hours with water) with timed release niacin (100mg once or twice a day) – mood stabilizing, promotes serotonin synthesis.

9.      5HTP (100mg at bedtime) – precursor to serotonin, has anti anxiety and anti-depressant effects, take at bedtime.

10.   Melatonin (3 mg at night)-major relaxation biochemical, anti-aging, supports immunity and digestive health as provides a sense of well being.  Causes drowsiness, take at bedtime.

11.   Beyond Tangy Tangerine – nutritional deficiencies =can trigger the symptom of PTSD.  Sipping on Youngevity’s Beyond Tangy Tangerine all day long can prevent drops into nutritional deficiency status. [Buy Beyond Tangy Tangerine here]

12.   Celtic Sea Salt – manna for the adrenal glands.  Put a teaspoonful or two in a glass of water and sip on it, if it tastes delicious you’re adrenals are gonna love it!   After a while, when it doesn’t taste as delicious you’ve had enough.

13.   Magnesium (1200-2000mg a day glycinate form is the ideal.)  Green veggies are a great source of magnesium.  Involved in production of stress management hormones.  Gall bladder or other digestive health problem may impair absorption.  Take with apple cider vinegar, lecithin, digestive enzymes, bile salts, fatty meals to maximize absorption.

14.   Inositol (500mg 2-4 times a day) – This vitamin-like substance improves serotonin’s stress management properties.  High doses (18) grams a day shown to work as well as Prozac with no side effects.

Posted by Ben Fuchs in Health

Connective Tissue & Raisin Bread

By Ben Fuchs | Pharmacist Ben


-Connective tissue is one of 4 main tissues in the body.  The others are nerve, muscle and epithelial tissue.

-Connective tissue is made up of cells and a matrix that is akin the raisins and bread.

-Most significant connective tissue cells are called blast cells and the manufacture the connective tissue matrix they are embedded in.

-These blast produced substances are fibers which provide structural support and polysaccharides that function as shock absorbers.

-Many health issues such as autoimmunity are manifestations of connective tissue breakdown.  So are the general signs of aging including bone fragility, muscle weakness, wrinkles, and thinning skin.


The human body is made up of 4 systems.  Biologist’s call these systems “tissues”, they’re made up of cells and they in turn comprise everything that makes up a living body.  These tissue systems include nerve tissue which forms the nervous system, epithelial tissue which forms skin hair, nails, glands and all surfaces, skin and within and muscle tissue which makes up the muscular substance of the body.

Connective Tissue & Raisin BreadThe 4th and most abundant tissue system is called connective tissue (CT) and boy is this stuff cool.  Connective tissue is not only the most abundant tissue in the human body, it’s the most abundant biological tissue on the planet.  In a sense connective tissue is like raisin bread.  It’s made up cells and “stuff” which can be thought of as analogous to raisins (cells) and bread (“stuff”).  Of course in the body we have various types of raisins/cells and a matrix that is much more complex then bread, still, simplistic as it may be, this practical kitchen pantry visual can give a rough idea of the structure of connective tissue.

Of the numerous types of cells in connective tissue by far the most important are the blast cells, which are responsible for the manufacturing of connective tissue.  These cells are called by various names, depending on where in the body they’re found.  The prototypical connective tissue blast cell is called the fibroblast. The fibroblasts are the connective tissue workhorse cells.  They produce fibers that keep epithelial and muscle tissues strong, elastic and well supported and slimy mucus-like substances called polysaccharides.  The only tissue system that does not include connective is the nervous system. While surrounded with CT on its perimeter the nervous system as its own specialized version of CT called “glia”.

Connective tissue can be though as matrix that holds the body’s structures and organs in place.  Because the vast majority of the body is connective tissue, understanding what it is and how to maintain its strength integrity is critical for keeping the body healthy and vital.  The aging process is largely marked by accelerated breakdown and sluggish repair of connective tissue.  And because connective is derived from processes that occur in blasts, feeding and nourishing and as well as detoxifying these critical hard working manufacturing cells is job #1 for healing, repair and anti-aging.

As noted above, connective tissue blast cells produce two major classes of substances that form the bread/matrix that they, in raisin-like fashion are embedded in.   Biologist’s call these two substances fiber and slime. OK, not really.  The fiber component is made up of what is called collagen along with some elastin and a smattering of a third substance called reticulin.  The gooey slimy substance is called polysaccharide whose wet mucoid nature is a manifestation of its high water absorbing capacity.  The slimy nature of polysaccharide water-trapping properties allows it function as very efficient biological shock absorber.

For most connective tissues the fibers predominate, but in the case of a very specialized type of connective tissue, fibers are scarce (or they should be, a harbinger of a disease and an early demise  is  an excessive amount of blood fiber formation) and the wet polysaccharides rule.  This specialized connective tissue is basically liquid or gel-like and it’s called the blood.  Yes, that’s right; even though it’s rarely thought of as such, the blood is a (connective) tissue.

Almost all health challenges, including arthritis, vasculitis, cellulitis and heart disease have a connective tissue connection.  CT is home to cells of the immune system, so connective tissue is often a target of autoimmune disease.  And because of its role in supporting the body, the classic wrinkling, shrinking and shriveling effects of old age as well as bone and muscle weakness and fragility are all likely to occur as blast cells slow down the connective tissue matrix degenerates.

Because of the relationship between connective tissue and the appearance of aging, collagen and other CT structures are often the target of advertising and marketing claims for various anti-aging and beauty aids such as skin firming products and wrinkle creams and cellulite wraps.  Yet unbeknownst to consumers who spend billions of dollars a year on such potions and lotions and pills in a largely futile attempt to restore a youthful appearance , the key to staying and looking young, vital  and healthy is to make sure connective tissue cells are being fed, oxygenated and kept free of toxicity.  Below are my Top 12 strategies and tools for building strong connective tissue.

Now C-1000 w/Rose Hips
Now C-1000 w/Rose Hips

– Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid) 1.0 g (1,000 mg) 1670%

– Rose Hips Powder (Rosae pseudofructus) (seed) 25 mg

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Consistent cell protection and free radical fighting.

Now C-1000 w/Rose Hips, 250 Tablets

#1 Vitamin C 1000-5000mg a day – the key that turns on the production collagen fibers the strongest most connective tissue substance and responsible for its  steel like tensile strength.

#2 Glycine (1-2 grams a day)  – the primary amino acid in connective tissue, glycine provides  the firmness of CT.  While not essential (the body makes its own glycine) increasing intake through diet and supplementation can assure a steady supply.  Whey protein is a great source of glycine.  And straight glycine supplements are also easily available via health store or the internet.

#3 Hyaluronic acid (100-200mg a day) – this under-appreciated complex sugar molecule contributes to detoxification and provides building blocks for healing soothing and growth and repair of connective tissue.

#4 Sulfur (MSM1000-3000mg a day) provides key support structure element for connective tissue.  As nutritional content and consumption of sulfur veggies (onions, garlic, shallots, broccoli, cauliflower) containing declined rates of osteoporosis increased.

#5 Creatine Monohydrate (1 teaspoonful 3 or 4 times week, after workouts) – tripeptide (3 amino acids) that support blast energy and structure of bone and connective tissue.

#6 Gelatin (1 teaspoonful to 1 tablespoonful in 8 oz. of water once a day- source of connective tissue building amino acids.  Soothes digestive tract inflammation for improved absorption of nutrients.

#7 Eat protein (at least ½ gram per day per pound of body weight)– connective tissue is made up mostly of protein.  Eating enough protein assures a constant supply of these amino acids.  Look for sulfur containing protein (meat seafood, whey, egg).  Dairy and egg protein also supply growth factors which can stimulate the production of a thick robust CT.

#8 Bone soup –this delicious traditional food is a spectacular immune booster (Jewish penicillin) and it’s glycine and protein  co0ntent are substantial easy to absorb.  Eat liberally, look for the recipe on

#9 Practice deep breathing techniques – Healthy oxygenation slows down secretion of bone busting cortisol and improves energy production.  Lung muscles also propel lymphatic fluid promoting detoxification.

#10 Exercise – acute physical stress and weight bearing pressure stimulate blast cells production.

#11 Stay away from pro-inflammatory foods –This includes processed foods and refined sugar but food allergens including beans and veggies can all have anti bone building effects too. Inflammation promotes degeneration and slows down anabolic (building) activity of blast cells.

#12 Correct digestive health issues – minerals like calcium, magnesium and zinc and protein all key players is connective tissue health require healthy digestive functioning.  Taking bile salts, digestive enzymes and apple cider vinegar with meals can improve absorption of connective tissue building nutrients.

Raisin bread is a bread that contains raisins. Its invention has been attributed to Henry David Thoreau. It is often classified as a sweet bread and is sometimes combined with cinnamon sugar. Served toasted or as a dessert, the bread is commonly found in the United States, Northern Europe, Germany and Australia. [Read more: From Wikipedia]

Posted by Ben Fuchs in Health

N-Acetyl Cysteine Protects Your Liver

One of my all-time favorite nutritional supplements is N-acetyl cysteine, known to most simply as NAC (pronounced: “knack”). Not only is a NAC a building block of the body’s most important detox molecule, glutathione, but it is also a very special and important detox and even medicinal molecule on its own.  It’s a prescription drug called Mucomyst which is used by victims of cystic fibrosis to help clear out thick sticky mucoid secretion which clog unfortunate CF patient’s lungs and organs.  N-Acetyl Cysteine Protects Your LiverIt can also improve lung function folks who are dealing bronchitis or emphysema or tuberculosis. And, it’s available in intravenous form as a medication called “Acetadote” which is used as an antidote Tylenol liver poisoning.  According to an article published in the Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, Tylenol or acetaminophen (which is the generic name for Tylenol) poisoning is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States, with nearly half of acetaminophen poisoning cases due to unintentional overdose.  Even if you’re not dealing with acute, full blown liver poisoning taking a couple hundred milligrams a day of NAC might not be a bad idea if you’re taking Tylenol on a regular basis.

NAC is used in the food industry to protect butter and other fatty foods from going rancid. It seems to be especially protective against oxidation of fats. If you’re dealing with osteoporosis, NAC can protect bone making cells from oxidation. It can be helpful for folks dealing with kidney disease.  In article published in the American journal of physiology in 1997, researchers concluded that NAC can reduce the impact of ischemic renal failure. Other researchers are exploring the use of NAC for chronic cystinosis, which is an accumulation of crystals in the kidney as well as the eye and the lymph nodes.  And there are currently studies aiming to find out if NAC can be used to treat coon inflammation. Keep in mind now, all of these potential uses for NAC are independent of NAC’s important and most well-known role as a building block for the glutathione tripeptide molecule.

One of my favorite uses for NAC, which is truly a versatile detox supplement, is in a topical form to alleviate some of the toxicity associated with the acne medicine Benzoyl peroxide.  There’s not a lot of topical medications for acne, you pretty much count all the approved topical acne meds on one hand and Benzoyl peroxide is pretty much the only medication for acne that you’re going to find in a drug store. It’s a rare acne sufferer who has not used Benzoyl peroxide containing products at least once, and most people who have acne are using it on a daily basis.  It’s the stuff in proactive, most Neutrogena acne products and pretty much all Clearasil acne products too.  The problem with Benzoyl peroxide is its somewhat extreme toxicity. The FDA regulate the amount of BPO (as Benzoyl peroxide is referred to), so theoretically at least, toxicity should not be a problem. The maximum percentage you can get of BPO is 5 per cent or 10 percent if you have a prescription and toxicity with includes tumors and cancer has only been shown to occur at  high levels say,  at 50 percent or higher concentrations, but do you really want to use any percentage of a known tumor causing agent. If you are using Benzoyl peroxide washes or creams you should now that you can protect yourself number one by supporting glutathione using the building blocks; glutathione is an important skin cell protector.  But you should also know that you can use NAC on its own to protect yourself from Benzoyl peroxide toxicity.  You can even use NAC to protect yourself from the irritation that Benzoyl peroxide can cause.  Simply dump  the contents  of a 500mg  NAC capsule into your favorite skin care cream, mix it in real well so it’s completely dissolved, and apply it to your face after you use your BPO.  If you add some Vitamin E, you can stick a pin in a Vitamin E capsule and add the oil to your cream along with the NAC, you can even better anti-irritant effects.  Of course taking NAC orally and Vitamin E for that matter can also help your body fight off some of the toxicity associated with Benzoyl peroxide.  And because acne may be related to deficiencies in glutathione, taking NAC as a supplement may clear up your skin enough so that you won’t even need your Benzoyl peroxide products in the first place.

And that’s not the only topical benefits you can get form NAC.  It turns out folks who have psoriasis may get at least some symptomatic relief form topical application of NAC. According to an article published in The Lancet in 1999 a 10 percent N-acetyl cream was shown to slow down the hyper growth of skin cells. Although this study was not done directly on psoriasis patients, given the non-toxic and gentle and healthy benefits associated with NAC it might be worth a try.  One thing to keep in mind if you are going to make use of NAC cream for acne or psoriasis or simply as an anti-oxidant (which might not be a bad idea, given the numerous benefits associated with this interesting nutritional substance) you have to make sure to use it fresh.  NAC breaks down pretty quickly and if you add it to your favorite lotion or cream and let it sit for more than10 or 15 minute, the sulfur component of NAC will be released and it can destroy the structure of your product, and it’ll probably give off a pretty stinky sulfur smell too.

You can support and improve the effects of taking NAC if you use it with selenium and alpha lipoic acid.  A good daily dose of these three musketeers of detox is 500mg of NAC, 400micrograms of a chelated selenium and 400mg of alpha lipoic acid. Taking these nutrients with 100mg of Vitamin C (1000mg) and 400 i.e. of Vitamin E, (as mixed tocopherols) can provide even more detoxification and protective benefits.

Bet you didn’t know:
NAC’s important liver detox role makes it an important anti hangover alcohol clearing supplement. Take 500mg to 1000mg before you go out drinking and another 500mg when you get home and may another 500mg the next morning.  Drink lots of waste and use the B-complex with each dose and you can eliminate or at least dramatically reduce the headaches and yucky feelings associated with alcohol overdose and toxicity.

Glutathione is a three part molecule made up of the amino acids cysteine, glutamine and glycine. In addition to getting cysteine from NAC, for maximizing glutathione production make sure you’re getting a teaspoonful of glutamine powder every day and using gelatin capsules, whey protein bone soup to get your glycine.

According to the folks at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NAC has benefits for reducing the symptoms of HIV/AIDS and cancer the toxicity associated with chemo- and radiotherapy.

NOW Foods N-Acetyl Cysteine

Nac-Acetyl Cysteine
N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a stable form of the non- essential amino acid L-Cysteine. A sulfur-containing amino acid that acts as a stabilizer for the formation of protein structures, also necessary for the formation of Glutathione.

Molybdenum & Selenium are essential trace minerals that facilitate the production of several important enzymes.

NOW Foods Nac-Acetyl Cysteine 600mg, 250 Vcaps

Posted by Ben Fuchs in Health

Benefits of Betaine HCL

By Ben Fuchs | Pharmacist Ben

One of the most important supportive digestive aids you can ever take is betaine HCL, which while well recognized as a source HCl (hydrochloride) for improving the food dissolving acid activity of digestive juices is less recognized as a source of  betaine, which is one of the least appreciated supplemental substances.  The technical name for betaine is trimethylglycine (TMG) and there are lots of neat things about it that don’t get a lot of attention.

Benefits of Betaine HCL

Beets via Wikimedia Commons

As implied by its nomenclature trimethyl glycine is a two section molecule, one part called “trimethyl” the other is called “glycine”.  The glycine component is one of the most important of all the amino acids.  It’s not considered to be essential, your body can make a small amount, but when you’re taking supplemental betaine HCL you’re going to beef up your body’s glycine stores.  Glycine is key element of the of the detoxification machinery.  By adding a little TMG to your daily supplement program you’re going to be helping your liver eliminate and process of toxins. You want more detox benefits?  Well, glycine is one third of the body’s most important detox substance, the tripeptide glutathione.

Glycine is also important for the digestive system too.  It’s a component of bile so it’s got a role to play in fat absorption too and it helps improve stomach acid secretion. Glycine is one of the active ingredients in bone soup, and it’s one of the reasons I’m always talking about using bone soup for improving the health of the digestive tract.

Glycine also has some important relaxation properties.  It can be used as anti-stress supplement, it’s been used to minimize the impact seizure disorders, it’s can balance out the effect of excitotoxins, and it can help balance out the stress promoting properties of estrogen. It’s brain- calming properties are why scientist call glycine an inhibitory neurotransmitter, it’s very similar to another relaxing brain chemical GAMA, and both chemicals can be used as sleep aids.

Muscle building?  Glycine can help you make creatine, which is not only important for athletes and body builders, but also a supports the vitality and vigor for the most important of muscles the heart.  Older folks and cardiac patients take note!

And that’s not all!  Glycine is a keep component of bone building collagen, the most important and multi-functional protein in the body.  Collagen is the key chemical entity in bone and it’s the most important protein in the skin too.   Every year American women spend billions of dollars for anti-aging cosmetics, but no matter how fancy or expensive you’re skin care product is you aren’t going to making any collagen or doing your skin or wrinkles any good if you don’t have enough glycine.  But there’s even more!  Glycine via upregulation of collagen can help strengthen the circulatory system, veins and arteries which like bone and skin contain large amounts of the versatile protein.

Glycine can help with sugar metabolism too, and it can be an important biochemical for diabetics; to counteract insulin resistance, which is one of the most significant of all health challenges.  In an article that was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2002, it was shown that glycine can potentize insulin allowing for lower section and it can facilitate glucose removal from the blood.  An added benefit to using to using the ultimate enzymes after meals

Can you see I love betaine HCl so much? And we haven’t even talked about the trimethyl part yet!

Trimethyl means three methyls and methyls are involved in one of the most important of all biochemical reactions, something called methylation.  Methylation is a keep chemical for genetic health.  Methyls basically activate DNA and in fact it is the reason why pregnant women are pretty much universally told to use folic acid to prevent birth defects.  Folic acid is a key methylating supplement.  Methyls or methyl groups as they’re called by biochemists can have important anti-cancer properties and methylation plays a role in activating numerous biochemical processes, especially for the heart and liver and brain.

TMG can help lower heart toxic homocysteine and it can help the body make a key brain chemical called DMAE which is important for learning and memory.  If you want to improve brain health or you have a parent or grandparent dealing with Alzheimer’s disease the trimethyl glycine via its conversion to DMAE and choline can be very, very helpful.

Detox, relaxation, muscle building, brain boosting and heart health, cancer fighting too; all of these benefits are a bonus and this exemplifies one of the coolest about nutritional supplementation.  When  you supplement with betaine HCL for your digestive system, you’ll improve liver functioning, build muscle, reduce your risk of heart disease, garner protection from excitotoxins and get a good night’s sleep to boot.  You take a drug and you have to deal with toxic side effects and you take a nutritional supplement and you get so many extra beneficial effects it’s hard to keep track of them all.  Beneficial effects that have nothing to do with your original reason for taking the supplement in the first place!

You’ll find some betaine HCL in many quality digestive enzyme supplements, usually around a100mg or so.   Or, you can just straight betaine HCl, which is available for many suppliers as 600 to 650 mg capsules.  It’s best taken with meals and a little apple cider vinegar to enhance its stomach acid supporting properties.

Now Foods Betaine HCl
Betaine HCL
NOW Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin is formulated for maximum potency combines Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin that is standardized to National Formulary requirements. This blend is encapsulated for quick delivery. A great complement to any dietary regime.

Now Foods Betaine HCl, 648 mg , 120 Capsules

Posted by Ben Fuchs in Health