Even if you are sure that they are significant, it doesn’t mean that you should repeat them many times. Discussing Your Findings. This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings. to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. An abstract is a super-short summary and is difficult to write. Department of Biology. Briefly reiterate for your readers the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. The discussion can start with a summary of the aims and the results (write about x-fold or % changes rather than just repeating the results) You should try to explain the results, but only within the context of the study - integrating swags of theory into the discussion is not necessary and leads to rambling reports. University College Writing Centre. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Analyzing vs. Summarizing. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, other questions related to the problem likely remain unanswered. The conclusion section can also include lessons learned and future research areas that could shed further light on the current experiment. You should: Discuss your conclusions in order of most to least important. A lab report can also be used for criminal investigation by the police personnel. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. Lab reports are an essential part of scientific study and knowledge. Make Suggestions for Further Research. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. University of Toronto; Summary: Using it Wisely. To do this you … Each conclusion should be supported with appropriate evidence. Your interpretation must be original and you can write from being specific to general and do … This is where you infuse your results with meaning. Get input on the case from all members of the team, highlighting their involvement. It is the last part of your paper, in which you summarize your findings in light of the current literature. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. A good abstract is: Also do not repeat your results, this is a discussion. If you want to write a nice discussion paper, you should express different ideas and opinions on the given topic and provide a discussion based on … Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. Info on abstracts from APA manual: An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of an article, allowing readers to survey the contents quickly. The sequencing of providing this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. If a study that you cited disagrees with your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why the study's findings differ from yours. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of statistical significance. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think about the results [“why hadn’t I thought of that?”]. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. A key objective of the discussion section is to synthesize the results by providing a logical explanation. A key purpose of the discussion section is to move from specifics to general information. Do not use words to conceal your facts or reasoning. No one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretion of those results, not just the data itself. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources in your research paper are usually found in the discussion section. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. Even if you like the topic, you might find it complicated to write about it. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important finding first. If you feel compelled to speculate, be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. How to Write a Chemistry Lab Report. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Scientists can use the report as a basis for their research. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Choose words that you would use to search for your article. A conclusion section provides a synopsis of work in which the results findings are mapped to the objectives. English Report Writing Examples But if you are looking to put your talents to good use as a public speaker and perhaps as a future lawyer, a good training ground would be to join the debate team. Start this chapter by reiterating your problem statement and research questions and concisely summarising your major findings. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. Here you have to write about your ideas after the experiment was conducted and inform your readers about your thoughts that are based on the results of the experiment. In this chapter, you can make references to earlier resear… A laboratory report can be used for several purposes. Possibilities include the name of the condition or special treatments that you used. Venkatesh has more than 25 years of experience in different industries including telecommunications, healthcare, banking and financial management, government, transportation and logistics, education, and consumer goods. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. Here's how you should write this section: 1. If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each them in the order they appeared as you gathered the data. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. He has worked for many fortune 500 companies, including Unilever, AT&T, McKesson, and UPS. Writing up. The discussion section should definitely have a statement of your expected findings (Pechenik, 86). If you need some assistance in understanding how to write reports, ask for a copy of a report that was submitted in the past and use it as a template. You don’t have to write the report alone. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. In the shorter version of a lab report, the discussion section is typically separated from the results section and serves as a conclusion as well. American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). A company may create its product strategy based on the report findings. A good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. This demonstrates to the reader you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works and references in the past tense. In most of the cases, the discussion section revolves around existing theories and hypotheses referenced in the literature review section of the lab report. This section is often considered the most important part of a research paper because it most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based on the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. To write a good discussion for a lab report, learn to present ideas in a less boring format. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of the findings. Start by rewriting your research questions and re-stating your hypothesis (if any) that you previously … Typically, a detailed analysis of findings is provided in the conclusion section, including the reasons for not achieving the predicted outcome if the results did not meet the expectations. This is the section where you need to present the importance of your study and how it may be able to contribute to and/or fill existing gaps in the field. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. Present your thoughts and opinions in an understandable format and all of your readers will get your point of view. This paragraph should begin with a description of the unexpected finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or fresh insights about the problem after you've taken the findings into consideration. The success of your analytical report is a combination of accurate content discussion, proper formatting, strong and appropriate recommendations and overall document development. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to discover and not to prove. The discussion section is where you explore the underlying meaning of your research, its possible implications in other areas of study, and the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Ask the committee members for help or ask for a mentor that has written a report … III. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Education, How to Write a Scientific Conclusion for a Dissertation, The Fundamental Principles of Report Writing, Purdue University: Writing the Experimental Report -- Methods, Results, and Discussion, Penn State University: Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students -- Laboratory Reports, Penn State University: Sample Laboratory Report #2. Crucial aspects of a lab report are the discussion and conclusion. That being said, here is how you can write an effective analytical report: Discussion or Conclusion Once you've discussed the most important findings of your study in the Results section, you will use the Discussion section to interpret those findings and talk about why they are important (some instructors call this the Conclusion section). Writing in Psychology course syllabus. I. Avoid repeating information, unless the information is expanded to provide additional insight. Department of English Writing Guide. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand the discussion in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your efforts to interpret the data. Usually around 4 to 8 key words or phrases are permitted. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. An excerpt from the discussion section of a chemistry report Footnote. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results and/or linked to similar studies. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. The report should include interpretation of the results, including any new findings from the research. Systematically explain the meaning of the findings and why you believe they are important. This part of the paper is not strictly governed by objective reporting of information but, rather, it is where you can engage in creative thinking about issues through evidence-based interpretation of findings. Venkatesh holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Nova Southeastern University. This should be no more than one paragraph. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data. George Mason University; One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Department of English Writing Guide. If needed, use subheadings to help organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes. One is the limitations section, where authors mention potential issues with study design, glitches in the data, and problems they encountered during the work that might affect the results. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to. Kretchmer, Paul. In other words, the majority of the Discussion and Conclusions sections should be an interpretation of your results. The report should link back to the existing hypothesis as documented in the literature review section of the report. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Also include the prognosis of the patient, if known, as the reader will want to know the outcome. Avoid repeating information, unless the information is expanded to provide additional insight. The activity of the salivary amylase enzyme in this experiment increased with temperature up to 37°C. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your prior assumptions or biases. It is for this reason that we will look at some oral discussion activities, before examining how to approach the writing of discussion pieces in the classroom. You should make suggestions for further research in the discussion section. If the research uncovers some open issues that have to be further analyzed, the report should suggest further work to explore them. In the longer version of a report, where there are multiple findings, the discussion is typically included within the results section itself, and a separate conclusion section is provided to summarize the findings. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. Write up the case emphasising the interesting points of the presentation, investigations leading to diagnosis, and management of the disease/pathology. Start this chapter by reiterating your research problem and concisely summarizing your major findings. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Writing the Discussion Section (printable version here)The Discussion should be written after the Results section so that you have a good idea of what the experiment has demonstrated. Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. There should be a comparison of your results and your expected findings. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. Abstract - Write the abstract LAST. The next step is to find the information you need for your report. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. How to Write an Effective Analytical Report. V. Acknowledge the Study’s Limitations These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: In all these cases, it is imperative that a lab report be factual and provide adequate summarization of findings, backed by concrete evidence. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Investigative Report “Musts” Before you begin, it’s important to understand the three critical tasks of … However, take care not to overspeculate. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. Therefore, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you've gathered. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Check the guidelines of the journal to which you plan to submit your study. Interpretation is a subjective exercise. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. https://wordvice.com/research-writing-tips-editing-manuscript-discussion The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction. This should be no more than one paragraph. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Azar, Beth. How to write the final elements of a discussion section Most discussions will end with two elements. For a qualitative paper, although there is no need for statistical analysis of data, there is still a need to interpret the results for your audience in the Discussion section. If appropriate, the discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described. After you have written the results, start to write a discussion. You are trying to bring out the true meaning of your data without being too long. VI. First of all, never select a topic that doesn’t touch you. The report should link back to the existing hypothesis as documented in the literature review section of the report. The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. For students, discussion often bridges the gap between the speaking and listening learning areas and reading and writing ones. George Mason University; Discussion. How to write the Discussion section of a scientific research paper. It can also formulate a new theory around the results. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. How to Write an Effective Discussion. Writing a "good" discussion section This is is usually the hardest section to write. general guide to writing reports about scientific research you’ve performed The next big step is to write the discussion. Do not repeat specific ideas too often. Writing the Discussion The discussion section is a framing section, like the Introduction, which returns to the significance argument set up in your introduction. Be clear in your writing. The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. A lab report should not include any conflicting information that might cause confusion and trigger questions about the credibility of the report. Your Discussion and Conclusions sections should answer the question: What do your results mean? The Writing Center. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. Explain how your findings/results relate to what is already known in the field as well as to what you … Find the information. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical. Begin by discussing the research question and talking about whether it was answered in the research paper based on the results. In both cases, discussion and conclusion sections help to synthesize the findings by tying them to the objectives and discussing the implications. The first thing to be aware of, when you write a lab report discussions is the IV. Moreover, some unanswered questions may have become more focused because of your study. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses. Write in this section some information about whether your results supported your thesis or there were variances. For example, if you studied the impact of foreign aid on increasing levels of education among the poor in Bangladesh, it's generally not appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim. II. The order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same order as they were described in your results section. Read your laboratory report discussion a few times to check if it should be clear to readers.